Thinking at the Sicilian history, the Greek times come to mind, Selinunte, Segesta, Agrigento and the Greek theaters of Taormina and Siracusa. Thanks to its geographical position, the Sicily has always played a mediating role between East and West, which is also reflected in Sicilian art.
Phoenician, Arab and Byzantine monuments, excavations and works of art can be found next to Roman villas, Norman castles and cathedrals and baroque cities.
PALERMO "The most beautiful and largest metropolis in the world". This is how the Arab historian Al-Idrisi (about 1099-1164) describes Palermo.
The splendor of Palermo began in 831 with the conquest by the Arabs and with its consequent election as a center of Mediterranean culture and development.
The city, home to an emirate, housed countless mosques and residential buildings of the Muslim nobility.
With the Norman conquest of 1072, Palermo became the most populous center after Constantinople.
The Normans, started a flourishing economic and cultural development and elected it as capital of the Kingdom.
The fate of the island was governed by Roger who was succeeded by Guglielmo I (1154-1166) and then by his son, Guglielmo II (1166-1189).
In the cosmopolitan city they spoke Latin, Greek, Arabic, French and in those years, the language began to be introduced through the songs and poems of the trovatori.
The policy of the Normans succeeded in adapting administrative and legal systems taking into account the various ethnic groups and cultures in Sicily.
The advent of Federico II marked an important cultural and political revolution for the city of Palermo. Among other things, the sovereign must have contributed to the birth of the Italian language, thanks to the important poetic and literary production of those years.
It is precisely thanks to the "Poetic Sicilian School", born during the reign of Frederick, that we owe the birth of the sonnet. With the death of Federico, the city lost its primary role in the Mediterranean basin. It is the Angioini (1266-1282) and then the Aragonese (1282-1409) who take over the fate of the city.
With the Angioinians a vexatious period began for the nobility and the population and Palermo gave the role of capital to Naples.
Palermo arose in 1282 with the famous war of the Vespers and hunted the French from the island.
Now Palermo is in the Spanish orbit: first as a vassal kingdom and then, from 1409, as a direct domain of the Aragonese.
The city gradually becomes depopulated and undergoes an involution and a period of stasis from the urbanistic point of view.
The almost three centuries of Spanish domination mark the rebirth of the city: they are called artists, plasterers and decorators and erected sumptuous monuments (eg the Pretoria Fountain).
The extension of the city was extended and the Cassaro extended to the sea.
After a brief interlude of Savoy and Austrian domination, the Spaniards, with Charles III, returned to rule Sicily no longer as a vassal state of Spain but as an independent state of the kingdom of Naples.
The nobility erects marvelous palaces and palaces.
Thanks to Ferdinand IV, scientific studies are encouraged and the majestic botanical garden in Via Lincoln is established, among others.
In September 1866, the city was the scene of bloody anti-government movements. Construction work began on the two main theaters of the city, the Teatro Massimo and the Teatro Politeama.